PHOTOGRAPHS FROM THE WORLD OF DRAKE'S DRUM
Disclaimer: Many of the photographs on this page are works of fiction and have been altered using Photoshop. They represent images from an alternate history called Drake’s Drum. Nothing in them can be relied on to be real. Although this book is based on historical events it is a work of fiction. Any perceived similarity to any of the people portrayed in Drake’s Drum, be they living or dead, including their actions and the events that occour are entirely coincidental. Although the names of historical persons are used in this book, they are not necessarily the same people that inhabit our reality.
The photographs are derived from public domain images. Most of the UK sourced images are Crown Copyright which enters the public domain after 50 years. The rest are from one of the following sources; Associated Press, Australian War Memorial, Bundesarchiv, EN-Archive, Imperial War Museum, Library of Congress, US Navy, US Army, US Air Force.
If anyone has reason to believe that any of the images used here are, or are derived from, images which are not in the public domain please contact the author.
Left: Crowds in central London on Armistice Day, 1918. "...the thirty years that followed that victory were to prove no less tumultuous and no less difficult." Above Left: Admiral Sir David Beatty. Above Right: Admiral Sir John Jellicoe. "They joined the ranks of Drake, Nelson and Rodney as first rate British naval heroes and in consequence, when they offered an opinion, spoke with the voices of gods."
At the Washington Naval Conference "the powers agreed to managed building schedules rather than a moratorium on new construction" Top Left: HMS Invincible, a battle cruiser, commissioned 1927. Above Right: HMS Fearless an aircraft carrier, built on the hull of an incomplete Hood class battle cruiser. Above Left: Despite holding many high positions in government, including terms as First Lord of the Admiralty and Chancellor of the Exchequer, Winston Churchill (Seen here with his wife Clemmentine) had "a career that had failed to live up to its early promise". He is best remembered "...for his bold, but controversial decision to keep the pound sterling off the Gold Standard in 1925." Below Left: Leonardo da Vinci. Originally commissioned into the Italian Navy as a battleship, she was sunk in harbour in 1916 but raised in 1921 and converted to an aircraft carrier. She helped the service learn many vital lessons about the operation of aircraft from ships.
Right: Oswald Mosley campaigning for the Labour Party in the 1929 election. Below Left: A dole queue in northern England, 1934. Had the British economy not been subject to a 'New Deal' style of government intervention, unemployment might have been much worse. Below Right: Oswald Mosley and Benito Mussolini during a state visit to Italy in 1935. Initially friendly, relations between the two men, and the countries they led, soon cooled.
Right: Campaign 'buttons' from the 1940 American Presidential election. Below left: Huey Long, the candidate for the the American National Party. His powerful speaking style and ability to communicate with America's marginalised voters terrified the other party's candidates. Below Centre; Franklin Roosevelt, Democratic Party candidate and the incumbent. His constitutionally questionable decision to run for a third term was comprehensively attacked by the other candidates. Below Right: Wendell Willkie, the Republican candidate campaigning in Texas.
Above: Royal Navy Albacore torpedo bombers from HMS Courageous air-group. Left: The battleships Bismarck and Tirpitz with fighter escort after the Battle of Viking Bank. Below left: The British aircraft carrier HMS Courageous during the Battle of Lofoten. Below right: A Junkers Ju87C 'Zee-Stuka' being launched from the German aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin. Her complicated cradle type launch system meant her operational tempo was slow, limiting her effectiveness during the actions in Norwegian waters.
Above left: Two pictures of Graf Zeppelin under air attack. The top one was taken from a Royal Navy dive bomber, the lower one from the destroyer Z23. Above right: HMS Resolution, sunk at the Battle of Viking Bank, her lone stand against two more powerful opponents upheld the finest traditions of the Royal Navy and bought time for the convoy she was escorting to scatter. Right: Clement Attlee, Prime Minister of Britain 30th October 1938 to 10th May 1940. His internationalism led him to support appeasement and though far from being alone in this error, he was forced to carry much of the blame for the debacle of May 1940. Far Right: Hugh Dalton, Prime Minister from 10th May 1940 until 20th February 1941. In modern parlance he was a 'technocrat' and was out of his depth in the straitened circumstances of his tenure.
Above left: A Spitfire of 506 Squadron, RAF. This aircraft was lost on 14th September 1940 while being flown by a Royal Navy pilot, Sub Lieutenant John Leighton. He bailed out and returned to operations the following day. Above centre: The crew of an RAF Wellington bomber discuss Operation Match-Point, the raid on the Luftwaffe fighter bases of the Pas de Calais, before take off on the evening of 14th September. Above right: Royal Navy Swordfish aircraft provided target marking for the RAF's bombers. The RN's navigators were highly proficient, while the full moon and the open cockpits of the aircraft made their work easier than it might have been. Left: The aftermath of Match-Point; Audambert airfield with a destroyed German fighter. The German fighter force was severely degraded by the operation and thus significantly less effective on 15th September, the critical day of the Battle of Britain.
Upper left: Fairey Battle light bombers in Nationalist Chinese markings. British aircraft were supplied to Nationalist Chinese forces from 1941 onwards. These were often obsolescent; but robust, simple to operate types such as the Battle, Hurricane and Wellington were ideal for the Nationalists in their ongoing struggle against the Japanese invasion. Right: Archibald Sinclair became the Prime Minister of Britain in the 1941 election. His decade long stand against both Fascism and the policy of 'Accommodation' that encouraged it, gained him the trust and respect of the British people at a critical juncture in the country's history. His rise to power, immediately signalled a sea-change in the outlook and attitudes of a country exhausted and demoralised by it's defeats. Lower left and bottom: The success of German arms in Operation Barbarossa astonished the world, underlining the fact of the Nazi menace.
Above left: German Alpenkorps troops in Switzerland, 1943, during Operation Tannenbaum. Above: The last photograph taken of the Soviet battle cruiser Frunze. Lost to a German air attack in August 1942, her appearance after her re-construction in 1934 had caused a stir in naval circles and had a significant influence on warship design in several navies. It was not realised that she was a failure and although constant modification over the next eight years did much to ameliorate her problems, she could never be truly considered a success. Left: Martin Bormann, the main winner of the political infighting in Nazi Germany in 1943. Below, left to right: Joseph Goebbels, Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich. Three of the losers.
Above left: A Kreigsmarine amphibious landing exercise, 1940. Once the Germans began comprehensive study of the art of amphibious warfare they quickly mastered it. Above right: Oswald Mosley, answering questions in the committee phase of the Mosley Report. This document charted the future direction of British policy concerning the Empire.
Left: J. Edgar Hoover, the director of the FBI. His work in identifying Soviet Agents within American government was ignored until the Roosevelt administration gave way to that of Wendell Willkie. Above and Right: Whittaker Chambers and Elizabeth Bentley testifying, 1943. Below, left to Right: Laughlin Curry, economics advisor to the Roosevelt White House; Alger Hiss, Assistant Secretary of State in the Roosevelt White House; Harry Hopkins, Secretary of Commerce; Harry Dexter White, US Treasury adviser. All were spies for the Soviet Union and were convicted of treason and executed in 1944.
Right: Thomas Dewey, President of the United States from 8th October 1944 to 4th March 1945. Dewey took over the office upon the death of Wendell Willkie but could not convince the American people to give him a second term. Far Right: Harry S. Truman, President of the United States from 4th March 1945 to 4th March 1953. Below Left: Chinese troops in Battle with the Japanese, Kwangxi (Guangxi), early 1945. Below Right: Russian partisans engaging German troops in the Crimea, mid 1944. From late 1942 until mid 1945 the only forces opposing the might of the Axis war machine were badly fed, poorly organised, under equipped soldiers; many of whom belonged to bandit groups, improvised formations and militias.
Above left: The launch of the American battleship Illinois. Above right: The launch of the German battleship Berlichengen. The naval race continued at a frantic pace during the interbellum. The world's shipbuilding industries all produced large numbers of new warships. Left: Francisco Franco and Benito Mussolini. Much to their dismay, both men found their countries drawn inexorable into Germany's confrontation with the United States. Neither man wanted war, neither could find a way out of their obligations to the Axis Alliance. Below right. The Reichstag 7th May 1945. Adolf Hitler declares war on the United States. Few among the Nazi hierachy greeted the announcement with anything other than confidence. Below. The Empire State building was hit by incendiary bombs during the German air raid of 12th July 1945. Damage to the building was light but the propaganda value of the raid was immense.
Left: Olafur Thors, Prime Minister of Iceland, 21 October 1944 – 4 February 1947. Above: A Boeing JRB aircraft departing from Portland, Maine to take part in Operation Ragtime. Below left: Soldiers of the 82nd Airborne Division fighting in the suburbs of Reykjavik. Below right: A damaged JRB aircraft in Prince Christian Sound with the USS Tambalier in attendance.
Left: American Consolidated B24 'Liberator' bombers on their way to attack the Kreigsmarine fleet base at Trondheim in Norway, 19th July 1945. Losses were heavy. Below: A German Messerschmitt Me 364 bomber at the German air base at Lajes in the Azores. The aircraft is about to set out on a raid of Philadelphia, 29th June 1945.
Above left: The Italian battleship Roma, on fire and sinking, 27th July 1945, during the Battle of Finisterre. Above right: The American aircraft carrier USS Alliance after being struck by a submarine launched torpedo during the same battle.
Top left and centre: Admiral Otto Schniewind of the Kriegsmarine and Admiral Royal Ingersol of the USN, the men who led the opposing fleets at the Battle of the Celtic Sea. Top right: Junkers Ju 187 dive bombers from the German aircraft carrier Falke. Above left: The German carrier Strasser was hit multiple times by American air strikes and sunk. Above right: Grumman F6F fighters landing aboard the USS Enterprise during the Celtic Sea action. Below: Combat footage of an F6F and two Hienkel He 100 fighters.
Above left: General Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff of the British Army 1943-1945. Centre left: Sir Oliver Lyttelton, Britain’s Minister of State for the Far East 1941-45. Centre right: General Arthur Percival, architect and organiser of the defences of British territories in the Far East 1941-1944. Later in the war, he was one of the men who created the 'Vambrace' Plan for the defence of the United Kingdom. Above right: Field Marshal Phibun Songkram, Prime Minister of Thailand 1941-1944.
Top left: A Grumman F6F 'Hellcat' fighter of the US Navy. Top right: A Mitsubishi A7M 'Reppu' (Hurricane) fighter of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The performance of the A7M 'Reppu' came as a shock to the Allies, as did the skill of Japanese Navy pilots. Above left: Admiral William 'Bull' Halsey of the United States Navy. An aggressive leader, Halsey was in command of the American fleet at the Battle of Johnston Atoll. Above centre, Vice Admiral Tamon Yamaguchi who commanded the aircraft carriers of the IJN's Combined Fleet at the same action. Above left: USS Mississippi, struck by a bomb. Left: USS Pennsylvania, on fire and sinking.
Top left: Japanese troops in the Malayan jungle. Top right: Matilda tanks of an Australian regiment in southern Thailand. Though obsolete in Europe, tanks such as the Matilda and Valentine was well able to deal with Japanese armour in the Far East. Above left. Japanese Marines fighting on the streets of Khota Bharu, Malaya. Above right: British infantry, clearing a house in Nakhon Nayok, a key Allied defensive position in eastern Thailand.
Far left: The British battleships Valiant and Warspite leaving Singapore prior to the Battle of Siam Gulf. Left: Vice Admiral Philip Vian. His skilled ship handling at the battles of Con Dao and Tantalum meant the complete destruction of a Japanese supply convoy bound for Malaya. Below left: The battleship Haruna, lost at the Battle of Siam Gulf along with her sister ship Kongo. Below right. Haruna, illuminated by a British searchlight during the action.
Top left: A Japanese dive bomber over the aircraft carrier Victorious during the Battle of the South China Sea. Top right: A Fairey Barracuda torpedo bomber of the Royal Navy Air Arm. The ability to undertake torpedo attacks at night using radar, gave the Royal Navy a decisive advantage during the battle. Above left: The battle cruiser HMS Invincible under air attack. Above right: A Nakajima B6N torpedo bomber taking off from the Japanese aircraft carrier Akagi. Far left: Admiral Mineichi Koga, commander of the Japanese Combined Fleet during the Battle of the South China Sea. Left: Admiral Lancelot Holland Commander of the Royal Navy forces at the same action. Below: The Japanese battle cruiser Takao at speed.
Operation Schaustellar - the invasion of the United Kingdom, 10th June 1946. Clockwise from top left: German forces coming ashore at Bexhill; German paratroops dropping from FW 206 aircraft; Spitfire XIV fighters on patrol over southern England; Beaufighter aircraft attacking German shipping in the English Channel.
12th June 1946. Left: Children waiting to escape Brighton. The British authorities had a plan to evacuate them, but the intensity of the fighting compelled a return to their homes. Above: A destroyed German aircraft at Gatwick aerodrome. Below left: German paratroops hitch a ride on a 'Tiger II' tank. Below right: HMS Malaya, torpedoed and sinking off Spurn Head. The other ships of Force X and Y had orders not to stop for survivors, but many of her crew were rescued by fishing boats and small craft from the mainland.
Above: HMS Agincourt, The flagship of the British force at the Battle of Dungeness. Below right: A Junkers 288B of Kamfgeshwader 54 is shot down by a Tempest Mk VIII of Number 26 Squadron over southern England, 13th June.
Above: Admiral of the Fleet, Andrew Cunningham. Killed at the Battle of Dungeness, he won a Victoria Cross for his actions.
Above left: Exhausted German paratroopers near the village of Hayward's Heath, 14th June. Above right: Men of the Warwickshire Regiment prepare to attack a German position on the outskirts of Ashford.
Above: Claymore tanks of the Household Cavalry advance into Worthing, 14th June. Many of southern England's coastal towns suffered damage in the fighting. Left: 22nd June; civilians walk past a knocked out German 'Panther' tank in Hastings, after the surrender. Most of the German's armoured fighting vehicles ran out of fuel or ammunition and had to be abandoned.
Above left: Part of the German fleet leaving Trondheim Fjord, 9th June 1946. The battleship Bismarck is leading. Above right: The battle cruiser Scharnhorst ploughs through heavy North Atlantic swells, 12th June. Below left: HMS Thunderer firing her forward guns at the Battle of the Norwegian Sea. Below right: A 'Firefly' fighter of the Royal Navy Air Arm.
Above left: USS Waldron, one of the destroyers of Destroyer Squadron 31, which was attached to the Home Fleet during the Battle of the Norwegian Sea. Above right: The German destroyer Z32, on fire and sinking, 14th June. Below centre and right: The fleet commanders at the Battle of the Norwegian Sea; Admiral Bruce Fraser and Admiral Otto Cilliax.
Above left: Grand Harbour, Malta. Left: Benito Mussolini jokes with soldiers of the 'Camicia nera' Division before the start of the Italian assault on Malta. Below: Italian soldiers of the 'Folgore' Parachute Division just before boarding their aircraft. 10th June 1946.
Above: Lieutenant General Adrian Carton De Wiart, commander of the Malta Garrison. Above right: The monitor HMS Erebus. Right: The Italian battle cruiser Andrea Doria.
Left top: The Italian aircraft carrier Aquila. Above left: The British battleship Howe. Above Right: 17th June 1946. The news of the surrender of German forces in southern England was greeted with a tremendous public outpouring of joy.